What is Genito-urinary tract?
"Genito-urinary" is a word that refers to the urinary and genital organs. Urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the urinary tract in both sexes and the genital tract of the male reproductive system. Nephrology is the branch of medicine that studies the kidney.
The urinary tract includes the organ system primarily responsible for cleaning and filtering excess fluids and waste materials from the blood. The urinary system consists of the following:
The kidneys also function as glands that produce hormones necessary for the production of red blood cells and regulation of blood pressure.
What are the causes of urinary system problems?
In children, urinary tract problems can include acute and chronic kidney failure, urinary tract infections and obstructions, and birth defects.
The diseases usually produce temporary or permanent changes in the functional structures and small vessels located within the kidney. Frequent urinary tract infections can cause scarring of these structures, leading to kidney failure. Diseases that cause kidney damage include the following:
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Polycystic kidney disease
- Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract problems are often related to a blockage that prevents the bladder from emptying completely and often leads to urinary reflux. A urinary tract obstruction can cause damage to the urinary tract and kidneys because urine backs up and collects in various parts of the tract. Accumulation of urine in the bladder, ureters, or kidneys can lead to infection, scarring, and long-term kidney failure. Some of the disorders that can cause urinary tract obstruction are:
- Posterior valves of the urethra
- Ureterocele or ureteral duplication
- Reflux vesicoureteral
- Neurogenic bladder
Some urinary tract disorders only affect men and are largely related to male anatomy and fetal development. Disorders that affect men involve the penis, urethra, or testicles. Male urogenital disorders include the following:
- Undescended testicles or cryptorchidism
- Inguinal hernia
- Testicular torsion
Genitourinary disorders in children are usually detected by fetal ultrasound before birth. If not detected in this way, children often develop a urinary tract infection that will prompt your child's doctor to perform special diagnostic tests that could detect an abnormality. Some kidney diseases appear later or after a child has a bacterial infection or an immune disorder.
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